Anglu kalbos taisykles

Anglų analizės
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Auxiliary verbs
Do is used to form negative and question forms of the Present Tense and did is used in the Past Simple Tense:
I don’t like it. Does she go to the University? He didn’t pass the exams. Didn’t we meet at the airport?
Do is used in the positive to give emphasis to a verb:
She is very busy. She does try hard. I did try to help, but there was no need.
Do is used in tag questions and short answers:
He wrote it, didn’t he? She knows him better, doesn’t she? Who opened the window? Rose did.
Be + Present Participle (–ing) is used to form continuous tenses:
I am writing a letter now.
Be + Past Participle (–ed etc.) is used to form passive sentences:
The houses are built from bricks. It’ll be finished soon.
Have + Past Participle (–ed etc.) is used to form perfect tenses:
I have never been to London. They have already started it.
2. Modal auxiliary verbs
Unlike do, be, have (which only help to form tenses) modal auxiliaries have their own meanings. They express:
• ability (can) – I can’t explain it.
• possibility (can, may) – Can I have my photo taken?
• permission (may) – May I use your book?
• uncertainty (may) – You may think you’re very old, but you strike me as extremely young.
• reproach (might) – You might come in time.
• obligation (must, ought to) – Children ought to respect their parents. He must earn money.
• advisability (should) – You should be more careful.
• necessity (need) – He did not need to be told twice.
• refusal (will not/won’t) – The car won’t start. (It “refuses” to start).
Some important modal phrases:
1. To have + Infinitive (obligation, necessity) is used as a modal expression in three tense forms: Present, Past and Future Indefinite.
I have to get up at seven every day. Did you have to get up at 7 on Sunday? She will have to come on time.
2. To be + Infinitive (rather strict obligation, a planned action) is used as a modal expression in two tenses: Present and Past Indefinite (was, were).
You are to go straight to your room. We were to meet at the entrance of the theatre at a quarter to seven.
• Be able to is possible instead of can, but can is more usual; can has only two forms: can (present) and could (past). Sometimes we have to use be able to:
I haven’t been able to sleep very well recently (can has no Present Perfect).
I’ll be able to help you (can has no Future Indefinite).
• Could is the past of can especially with these verbs: see, hear, smell, taste, feel, remember and understand:
I could remember only a few words.
I could play handball very well when I was at school. (General ability to do...