A cpu history

Anglų referatai
Microsoft Word 66 KB
13 puslapiai

The history of the processor is an interesting one, full of fierce competition and advanced technology, yet short in the terms of years. At the point where I will begin addressing this history, we are beginning with a 5 MHz 8086 processor, and today we are routinely seeing 1.8 GHz to up over 2 GHz. What a difference 20-some years can make. Let us start.
In the Beginning, there was 8086
CPUs have gone through many changes through the few years since Intel came out with the first one. IBM chose Intel's 8088 processor for the brains of the first PC. This choice by IBM is what made Intel the perceived leader of the CPU market. Intel remains the perceived leader of microprocessor development. While newer contenders have developed their own technologies for their own processors, Intel continues to remain more than a viable source of new technology in this market, with the ever-growing AMD nipping at their heels.
The first four generations of Intel processor took on the "8" as the series name, which is why the technical types refer to this family of chips as the 8088, 8086, and 80186. This goes right on up to the 80486, or simply the 486. The following chips are considered the dinosaurs of the computer world. PC's based on these processors are the kind that usually sit around in the garage or warehouse collecting dust. They are not of much use anymore, but us geeks don't like throwing them out because they still work. You know who you are.
• Intel 8086 (1978)
This chip was skipped over for the original PC, but was used in a few later computers that didn't amount to much. It was a true 16-bit processor and talked with its cards via a 16 wire data connection. The chip contained 29,000 transistors and 20 address lines that gave it the ability to talk with up to 1 MB of RAM. What is interesting is that the designers of the time never suspected anyone would ever need more than 1 MB of RAM. The chip was available in 5, 6,, 8, and 10 MHz versions.
• Intel 8088 (1979)
The 8088 is, for all practical purposes, identical to the 8086. The only difference is that it handles its address lines differently than the 8086. This chip was the one that was chosen for the first IBM PC, and like the 8086, it is able to work with the 8087 math coprocessor chip.
• NEC V20 and V30 (1981)
Clones of the 8088 and 8086. They are supposed to be about 30% faster than the Intel ones, though.
• Intel 80186 (1980)
The 186 was a popular chip. Many versions have been developed in its history. Buyers could choose from CHMOS or HMOS, 8-bit or 16-bit versions, depending on what they needed. A CHMOS chip could run at twice the clock speed and at one fourth the power of the HMOS chip. In 1990, Intel came out with the Enhanced 186 family. They all shared...